These are some important english rules
MDCAT PAST RULES WITH EXAMPLES
(English Top 100 rules must read)
1. Some nouns always take a singular verb.
Scenery, advice, information, machinery, stationery, furniture, abuse, fuel, rice, gram, issue, bedding, repair, news, mischief, poetry, business, economics, physics, mathematics, classic, ethics, athletics, innings, gallows.
(A) The scenery of Kashmir
are enchanting. (Incorrect)
(B) The scenery of Kashmir is enchanting. (Correct)
(A) He has given advices. (Incorrect)
(B) He has given advice. (Correct)
(A) The Indian team defeated the English by innings. (Incorrect)
(B) The Indian team defeated the English by an innings. (Correct)
(A) Mathematics are a difficult subject. (Incorrect)
(B) Mathematics is a good / difficult subject. (Correct)
Note if you have to indicate that the number of news, advice, information or furniture is more than one, the examples listed below can be followed:
(A) I have a lot of news to tell you. (Incorrect)
(B) He has sold many pieces of his furniture. (Correct)
2. Some nouns are singular in form, but they are used as plural nouns and always take a plural verb.
Cattle, gentry, vermin, peasantry, artillery, people, clergy, company, police.
(A) The cattle is grazing in the ground. (Incorrect)
(B) The cattle are grazing in the ground. (Correct)
(A) The clergy is in the church. (Incorrect)
(B) The clergy are in the church. (Correct)
3. Some nouns are always used in a plural form and always take a plural verb.
Trousers, scissors, spectacles, stockings, shorts, measles, goods, alms, premises, thanks, tidings, annals, chattels, etc.
(A) Where is my trousers? Incorrect
(B) Where are my trousers? Correct
(A) Spectacles is now a costly item. Incorrect
(B) Spectacles are now a costly item. Correct
4. There are some nouns that indicate length, measure, money, weight or number. When they are preceded by a numeral, they remain unchanged in form.
Foot, meter, pair, score, dozen, head, year, hundred, thousand, million.
(A) It is a three – years degree course. Incorrect
(B) It is a three – year degree course. Correct
(A) I have ten dozens of shoes. Incorrect
(B) I have ten dozen of shoes. Correct
5. Collective nouns such a jury, public, team, committee, government, audience, orchestra, company, etc. are used both as singular; otherwise the verb will be plural
(A) The jury was divided in this case. Incorrect
(B) The jury were divided in this case. Correct
(A) The team have not come as yet. Incorrect
(B) The team has not come as yet. Correct
6. Some nouns have one meaning in the singular and another in the plural:
Advice = counsel advices = information
Air = atmosphere airs = proud
Authority = command, authorities = persons in power
Good = wise goods = property
Iron = metal irons = fetters, chains
Force = strength forces = army
Content = satisfaction, contents = things contained
Physic = medicine physics = physical sciences,
Respect = regards respects = compliments
Work = job works = compositions, factories,.
Earning = income earnings = sowings
Quarter = one – fourth quarters = houses
(A) Air is necessary for human life.
(B) It is bad to put on airs.
(A) I have eaten one quarter of the cake.
(B) I live in the government quarters.
7. People are often confused or they commit mistake in the use of certain nouns.
(A) Lecturership is wrong: lectureship is correct.
(a) There are twenty candidates for lecturership. Incorrect
(b) There are twenty candidates for lectureship. Correct
(B) Freeship is wrong; free – studentship is correct.
(a) Ramesh has applied for freeship. Incorrect
(b) Ramesh has applied for free – studentship. Correct
(C) Boarding is wrong; boarding house is correct.
(a) Mohan lives in a boarding. Incorrect
(b) Mohan lives in a boarding house. Correct
(D) Family members is wrong; members of the family is correct.
(a) Vivek and Ramesh are my family members. Incorrect
(b) Vivek and Ramesh are the members of my family. Correct
(E) English teacher is wrong; the teacher of English is correct.
(a) Dr. Raina is our English teacher. Incorrect
(b) Dr. Raina is our teacher of English. Correct
(F) Cousin – brother or sister is wrong; only cousin is correct.
(a) Geeta is my cousin sister. Incorrect
(b) Geeta is my cousin. Correct
(G) Room in a compartment or a bench means unoccupied set.
(a) There is no room on this bench. Correct
(H) Our, yours, hers, theirs are correct.
(a) This house is our’s. Incorrect
(b) This house is ours. Correct
Note: The same principle applies to ‘yours ‘, ‘hers’ and ‘theirs’.
(I) Wages means punishments when used in singular.
(a) The wages of sin is death.
(J) It also means charges for the labour when used in plural sense.
(b) The wages of daily workers have been raised.
8. Also remember the subtle difference in the usage of these pairs of nouns
(A) The noun ‘habit’ applies only to an individual whereas ‘custom’ applies to a society or country.
(a) Poor children often become a victim of bad habits.
(b) Tribal in India have many interesting customs.