PAK-IND Confrontational relation over KASHMIR

expert online education

PAK-IND Confrontational relation over KASHMIR

The Kashmir is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region. The conflict started after the partition of Pakistan in 1947 as a dispute over the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir and resulted into three wars between India and Pakistan.
The dispute over kashmir is complex and intractable. The Indians put the blame for starting dispute over Kashmir on Pakistan, and in this connection, refer to two incidents: Tribal invasion of Kashmir which began on October 24,1947 and the secoond is the intervention of Pakistan army inside Kashmir in the first week of May,1948. But deeper look into the history of dispute would reveal that it were the Indian machinations started in May,1947 which were the actual cause of the dispute. For over seven decades, the region has been devastated by confrontations between the two countries. Both India and Pakistan are nuclear powers and in the case of another shooting war between them; the entire subcontinent including Kashmir may be destroyed.
History and Cause: The British Indian Empire was formed of hundreds of princely states spread all over the Indian Subcontinent. When the British finally decided to bring their rule to an end, the fate of these princely states was brought under scrutiny. The Princely states were now supposed to join either India or Pakistan after the British authorities leave. In regards of this process of the evolution of India and Pakistan, Jyoti Trehan remarks, “The process of integration of princely states was not without its highs and lows.” The sikh period of kashmir 1819-1846AD is painted black by several chroniclers because for 21 years, the Jammia Masjid{Grand Mosque of Kashmir} Srinagar faced closure for prayers to which orders were issued by Dewan Moti Ram, the Sikh Governer. Muslim notables knocked at the doors of Birbal Dhar, who interceded on their behalf and saved the mosque from getting destroyed. Kashmiris were heavily taxed in Sikh regime and their governers even continued the practise of forced labour, no matter the seeds were sown much earlier.The period from 1752-1819AD is considered among the darkest periods in the historry of Kashmir. This was the time when Afghans ruled Kashmir and unleashed a reign of terror on Kashmiri people. ON 16th March,1846, when the british defeated Sikhs and apparently sold Kashmir to Gulab Singh Dogra, the ruler of Jammu, but in real sense gifted to Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s patronised servant, as a reward for his treachery against the Sikhs, thus given an employment hrough an infamous deal called the “Treaty of Amritsar”.
In June, 1947, the British accepted Pakistan Plan. But the Hindu Maharajah Sir Hari Singh (the ruling monarch of Kashmir) was hesitating to join either Pakistan or India. In the state of J&K the population of Muslims was78% . In valley Kashmir Muslims were in majority of 93% . Since the Maharajah had acceded to neither side until the formation of India and Pakistan in August, 1947, Pakistan decided to act along communal lines. Being a Muslim dominated state, it decided to liberate Kashmir and backed the Azad Kashmir Force. In October, 1947, Pakistan invaded Kashmir and captured its northern and western parts. On the Maharajahs request and accession to India, the authorities in Delhi now reacted by sending troops to the region and Pakistani advances were arrested soon. Thus, the southern and eastern parts of the region were retained in the Indian Union and constituted as the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
1948 India raises Kashmir in the UN Security Council, which calls for a referendum on the status of the territory. The resolution calls on Pakistan to withdraw its troops and India to cut its military presence to a minimum. A ceasefire comes into force Pakistan refuses to evacuate its troops. Kashmir is for practical purposes partitioned. 1965 A brief war between Indian and Pakistan over Kashmir ends in a ceasefire and a return to the previous positions.1971-72  Another Indo-Pakistani war ends in defeat for Pakistan and leads to the 1972 Simla Agreement, this agreement is not followed by a quick pace due to kashmir issue..This turns the Kashmir ceasefire line into the Line of Control, pledges both sides to settle their differences through negotiations, and calls for a final settlement of the Kashmir dispute. The Agreement forms the basis of Pakistani-Indian relations thereafter. . 1999 – India and Pakistan go to war again after militants cross from Pakistani-administered Kashmir into the Indian-administered Kargil district. India repulses the attack, accuses Pakistan of being behind it, and breaks off relations.
To understand the causes of the conflict, the historic Partition of India has to be referenced. Under the British Rule, Indian Subcontinent was mainly inhabited by the two major religious groups, Hindus and Muslims. The two communities had friendly relationships and they offered a united struggle to achieve independence from the British Rule during the later half of the Nineteenth Century. But undercurrents of tension between the two communities became forceful with the lapse of time. Power politics between All India Muslim League and Indian National Congress culminated at widespread communal tension and violence during the 1930s and early 1940s. Consequently, the colossal task of partitioning India became unavoidable. After the Partition in 1947, Pakistan emerged as a Muslim dominated state while India emerged as a secular, democratic country. And the province of Kashmir, which is situated at the border of the two countries, got tangled and entrapped between them
Current state: With the lapse of time, Pakistan has shown tendencies towards Military Rule and autocratic governance. On several occasions, India has alleged that Pakistan has sponsored the different terrorist organizations in Kashmir. Moreover, India holds Pakistan responsible for several devastating terrorist attacks directed against India. On the other hand, Pakistan affirmatively sticks to its policy of extending moral support to the separatists in Kashmir. In such a state of affair, the common Kashmiris are suffering most. The innocent people are being victimized by baneful separatist propaganda. Confrontations between Indian military and armed separatists have caused huge loss of property, money, and lives so far. Moreover, the specter of Al Qaeda and Taliban has made the situation more complicated and dangerous in this part of the world.
New Delhi terminated article 35A of the Indian constitution by which any Indian national can became a citizen of Kashmir (as part of Indian union) and can invest in IOK. Many political experts and diplomates accounted for the Indian end of 35A as to change the statistics and change Muslims to minority. It is conspiracy of India to increase Hindus in the region and to establish Kashmir as Hindu Majority territory. Evidence can be added that India is massively killing Muslims there, maybe to decrease the Muslims ratio. In this scenario, Islamabad is much confident and even PMIK added that India can do wrong in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Many protests were recorded, after Indian illegal annexation of IOK. India used policy to control the protestors and killed many Kashmiri people in the valley. Several protests in the western world and in Iran has increased the popularity of Kashmir issue and also exposed how Indian armed forces are behaving with them. Thousands of statements have also been made from Pakistan in support of Kashmir. Important decisions were also taken by National Security Committee.
Conclusion: Kashmir issue has been the primary cause of diplomatic, political, and military stand off between India and Pakistan. Of late, both the sides are showing interest to begin bilateral talks once again. According to Farah Ibrahim, the solution of the issue lies in a planned conflict Resolution. The way to this conflict resolution lies in the methods of psychological intervention. Psychological perspective of the problem is more propound than its military, political, and diplomatic dimensions and interpretations. Unlike the “sharp rise in the ideal of Hindu nationalism” solution to Kashmir issue lies in the acceptance of the fact that the common Kashmiris deserve to live a normal and peaceful life. India and Pakistan both must come forward to eradicate the terrorist organizations functional in Kashmir, and continue the bilateral talks. The confidence building measures must be initiated meaningfully. In this way, by mutual goodwill, the political authorities of India and Pakistan can bring peace to the doomed province. Option of UNSC is like a chance or more like a lucky committee, because of the existence of veto by any P5 country. India is the largest market after China in Asia and many countries have invested in India. All the following available options for India would be short working and short-living excluding protests and extreme zeal of independence New Delhi can make various supportive statements and offer them special incentives under the constitution in markets and public services. To keep the situation in order without HR violations Indian armed and political leadership visit the region and ensure people that termination of 370 & 35A is also matter of their interest.

Tags

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button
Close

Adblock Detected

Please consider supporting us by disabling your ad blocker