Most essential and repeated biological points in MDACT, NUMS & FMDC test

1- Cutin is a is not a protein. 
2- Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar. 
3- Isoprenoids are monomers of carotenoids, steroids and terpenes. 
4- ATP, RuBP, NADP all have ribose sugar in them 
5- Most enzymes work at slightly Alkaline pH. 
6- With each cardiac output Kidney receives 10%.{both Kidneys receive 20 %} 
7- In a molecule of DNA nucleotides are linked both vertically and horizontally. 
8- Tetroses are least abundant carbohydrates in nature.
9- Charged pores in a cell membrane are formed by Channel proteins. 4 
10- Cytokinesis is the division of CELL after the division of the cytoplasm.It is not the division of the 

11- Bacterial chromosome has DNA only,nothing else. 
12-NOSTOC lacks mitochondria and hence it is not present. 
13- Chromosome condensation is at PEAK in METAPHASE phase. 
14- All those sugars ending in ”ulose” are KETO SUGARS { exceptions are Fructose and Dihydroxyacetone}, these are also keto. 
15- Agar, Pectin, Starch do not contain NITROGEN in them. 
16- CHITIN has NITROGEN in it. 
17- Alkaloids { Nicotine, Daturine, Atropine } are frequently present in SOLANACEA family. 
18- Acoelomates,Pseudocoelomates, Coelomates ALL have MESODERM in them. 
19-CAPSID of Polio Virus is SPHERICAL in shape. 
20- ENDOSPORES are formed during DECLINE phase. 
21-Spores are formed during ASEXUAL reproduction in Rhizopus. 
22-Most superficial infections are caused by Duetromycetes fungi. 
23-RED ALGAE also help in Coral formation. 
24-Secondary host of Liver fluke is SNAIL. 
25-TRANSDUCED bacteria has three types of DNA in it.{of itself,of other bacteria and of Virus } 
26-RHIZOPUS is Aseptate and Multinucleate. 
27-Bacteriophage is always DNA,it cannot have RNA. 5 
28-First organ system ever developed in evolution after formation of Mesoderm is neither Digestive nor Nervous but it is EXCRETORY system by PLATYHELMENTHES. 
29-HYDRA has no specialized muscle cells because it lacks MESODERM. 
30-Triploblastic animals with radial symmetry are not coelenterates,Arthropoda, chordates. 
31-Mesoderm has originated from cell extensions of ectoderm and endoderm. 
32-In most of the animals around us OPEN TYPE blood circulation is present. 
33-Longest part of Digestive system is ILEUM. 
34-innermost layer of digestive systems is MUCOSA. 
35- Pancreas is involved in Chemical digestion of LIPIDS. 
36-Mucous is made of Glycoprotein. 
37-Trypsinogen is activated by Enterokinase enzyme. 
38-Ciliated Epithelial cells are present in TRACHEA. 
39-Respiratory surface is 2-cell thick. 
40-CO,carbon monoxide has highest affinity for Haemoglobin- 
41-Ptaylin works on the food when it passes through oesophagus. 
42- one fatty acid doesnot combine withanother fattyacid and hence no linkage is present in two fatty acids. 
43-An oxygen molecule in an alveolar space crosses 5 membranes till it reaches our red blood cells. 6 
44- Haemoglobin can carry both CO and CO2, 02 and CO2 simultaneously. 
Pappilary muscles are extensions of Endocardium. 
46-In case of fungal infections Eosinophils increases in numbers. 
47-Lymph flow requires a strong pumping by blood. 
48-Mitral valve is also known as Bicuspid valve. 
49-Urinogenital tract is also known as Urethra. 
50-Maximum reabsorption of water takes place in Proximal Convoluted Tubule. 
51-Covering of Kidneys is Fibrous capsule. 
52-Kidney interstitium is related to Aldosterone for more concentration. 
53-Hepatic Vein has maximum amount of Urea. 
54-Antibodies are transferred from mother to both foetus and Neonate. 
55-Interferon are the antibiotics produced against viral attack. 
56-Maturation of sperms take place in Epididymus. 
57-Thickest layer of female reproductive tract is Myometrium. 
58-First polar body is present alongwith secondry oocyte. 
59-Thickest endometrium is present just before Menstruation. 
60-Bulbouretheral gland performes the function of neutralization of urine and lubrication. 7 
61-Testosterone is secreted in human male before birth. 
62-Ovulation relates to the release of secondary oocyte. 
63-Olecranium process is the process involved in locking Ulna and Elbow joint. 
64-Smooth muscles first time appeared in Phylum Platyhelmenthes. 
65-Digestion is not controlled by Cerebrum. 
66-Medulla connects brain with spinal cord. 
67-Adrenaline and nor-adrenaline are synergistic. 
68-Veinous blood contains hormones. 
69-Posterior lobe of Pituitary secretes ADH,secretes Oxytocin but doesnot synthesize any hormone. 
70-Adrenaline dilates the pupil and ATROPINE also has the same function. 
71-Sense organs like ears,eyes and nose are controlled directly by forebrain. 
72-Neuroglial cells are actually SCHWANN cells . 
73-T-1 referes to producers,T-2 referes to primary consumers,T-3 refers to secondary consumers and T-4 refers to tertiary consumers. 
74-Mycorhiza is an association between plant growing in Acidic soil. 
75-Leaves are eaten by caterpillars and caterpillars are eaten by black birds.
76-Grasses are resistant to grazing due to underground stem. 
77-Pesticide kills both insects and weeds. 8 
78-Stability in system is related to Food Web,more complex the web,the more is stability of the system. 
79-Symbiosis most correctly refers to living together of two organisms. 
80-Herbivores are reffered to as Primary Consumers and hence possess maximum amount of energy. 
81-A car parked in sunlight and its temperature is higher than outside.It is an example of Green house effect phenomenon. 
82-10% energy flows from one level to another rof the total amount of energy. 
83-Relation between T2 and T1 is GRAZING. 
84-relation between T2 and T3 is called Predation. 
85-Green house gases are CO2 and CFCs. 
86-Food web is benefical with more number of chains in it. 
87-Parasitism,Commensalism and Mutualism can be present between the same species. 
88-Retrovirus is used for Gene Therapy. 
89-20 RNA nucleotides in the primer of PCR. 
90-Male and female has more number of genes and more number of alleles respectively. 
91-Autosomal disease include colourblindness and haemophilia. 
92-Bombay disease refers to lack of an attacement factor. 
93-50% RBC make composition of blood. 
94-Community is a biotic factor of the ecosystem. 9 
95-Golgi apparatus is absent in Blue green algae which is a prokaryote. 
96-Asperigillus is an example of Brown mold. 
97-Atropine and Adrenaline are synergistic. 
98-Enterobius Vermicularis is present in Large intestine. 
99-Primase plays the role of first logical step in the process of DNA replication. 
100-During replication nucleotides used are triphosphates. 
101-Golgi vesicles forming golgi apparatus probably bud off from Smooth endoplasmic reticulum. 
102-Hollow peristaltic contractions are called Hungerpangs. 
103-Glycerol is absorbed in VILLI. 
104-Carbonic acid is formed redblood cells. 
105-Semilunar valves are present in heart,blood vessels and lymph vessels. 
106-Granulocytes are polymorphonuclear in nature. 
107-Lithotripsy removes all types of stones present in gall bladder,urinar bladder and Kidney. 
108-Eosinophil and Basophil are antagonistic to each other. 
109-Fibrinogen,Thrombocytes and Basophills all are involved in clotting of blood directly or indirectly. 
110-Basophills release Heparin. 
111-Urine is formed in Distal convoluted tubule. 10 
112-CO is neutral in nature. 
113-Single molecule of Haemoglobin has 4 iron groups in it. 
114-Hip and shoulder joint are synovial joints. 
115-Hormones are always released in Veinous blood. 
116-Unmarried lady has more number of degenerated Corpus Luteum . 
117-Ligaments differ from tendons in having Elastin. 
118-Fermentation occurs in cytosole and Mitochondria. 
119-Plasmid gene transfer are used for bacteria only. 
120-DNA ligase not required for PCR. 
121-Antigen of donor reacts with antibody of reciepient. 
122-Hydrogen bonds are more sensitive as compared to other bonds 
123-Chlorophyll a is common in antenna complex and reaction centre of photosynthesis. 
124-Evolution operates upon population. 
125-Product of evolution is the origion of a new species. 
126-Pilli are made up of PILLIN protein. 
127-Wheat grain is seed as well as fruit. 
128-Structural unit Reflex action is Neuron. 
129-Nerve Tracts are part of Central Nervous Ssystem. 
130-Secretion of Histamine by Basophills is sometimes related with use of Penicillin. 11 
131-Carotid Labyrinth is a swallowing at the base of carotid artery and its function is to maintain the pressure of blood. 
132-Most common form of glucose is in Ring form. 
133-In prokaryotes the transcription takes place in nucleoid. 
134-Leaves of Bamboo are used to cure the Horses. 
135-Antibodies are present in blood lymph and interstitial fluid. 
136-Retrovirus are not used in genetic engineering in bacteria. 
137-Aristotle first discussed evolution

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