Biology Cramming points By Expert MDCAT

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By:Khalid Ismail (Pharm D)T

1- Cutin is a is not a protein.
2- Sucrose is a non-reducing sugar.
3- Isoprenoids are monomers of carotenoids,steroids and terpenes.
4- ATP,RuBP,NADP all have ribose sugar in them
5- Most enzymes work at slightly Alkaline pH.
6- With each cardiac output Kidney receives 10%.{both Kidneys receives 20 %}
7- In a molecule of DNA nucleotides are linked both vertically and horizontly.
8- Tetroses are least abundant carbohydrates in nature.
9- Charged pores in a cell membrane are formed by Channel proteins. 4
10- Cytokinesis is the division of CELL after the division of cytoplasm.It is not the division of cytoplasm.
11- Bacterial chromosome has DNA only,nothing else.
12-NOSTOC lacks mitochondria and hence it is not present.
13- Chromosome condensation is at PEAK in METAPHASE phase.
14- All those sugars ending in ”ulose” are KETO SUGARS { exceptions are Fructose and Dihydroxyacetone},these are also keto.
15- Agar,Pectin,Starch do not contain NITROGEN in them.
16- CHITIN has NITROGEN in it.
17- Alkaloids { Nicotine,Daturine,Atropine } are frequently present in SOLANACEA family.
18- Acoelomates,Psuedocoelomates,Coelomates ALL have MESODERM in them.
19-CAPSID of Polio Virus is SPHERICAL in shape.
20- ENDOSPORES are formed during DECLINE phase.
21-Spores are formed during ASEXUAL reproduction in Rhizopus.
22-Most superficial infections are caused by Duetromycetes fungi.
23-RED ALGAE also help in Coral formation.
24-Secondary host of Liverfluke is SNAIL.
25-TRANSDUCED bacteria has three types of DNA in it.{of itself,of other bacteria and of Virus }
26-RHIZOPUS is Aseptate and Multinucleate.
27-Bacteriophage is always DNA,it cannot have RNA. 5
28-First organ system ever developed in evolution after formation of Mesoderm is neither Digestive,nor Nervous but it is EXCRETORY system by PLATYHELMENTHES.
29-HYDRA has no specialized muscle cells because it lacks MESODERM.
30-Triploblastic animals with radial symmetry are not coelenterates,Arthropoda,chordates.
31-Mesoderm has originated from cell extensions of ectoderm and endoderm.
32-In most of the animals around us OPEN TYPE blood circulation is present.
33-Longest part of Digestive system is ILEUM.
34-innermost layer of digestive systems is MUCOSA.
35- Pancreas is involved in Chemical digestion of LIPIDS.
36-Mucous is made of Glycoprotein.
37-Trypsinogen is activated by Enterokinase enzyme.
38-Ciliated Epithelial cells are present in TRACHEA.
39-Respiratory surface is 2-cell thick.
40-CO,carbon monoxide has highest affinity for Haemoglobin-
41-Ptaylin works on the food when it passes through oesophagus.
42- one fatty acid doesnot combine withanother fattyacid and hence no linkage is present in two fatty acids.
43-An oxygen molecule in an alveolar space crosses 5 membranes till it reaches our red blood cells. 6
44- Haemoglobin can carry both CO and CO2, 02 and CO2 simultaneously.
Pappilary muscles are extensions of Endocardium.
46-In case of fungal infections Eosinophils increases in numbers.
47-Lymph flow requires a strong pumping by blood.
48-Mitral valve is also known as Bicuspid valve.
49-Urinogenital tract is also known as Urethra.
50-Maximum reabsorption of water takes place in Proximal Convoluted Tubule.
51-Covering of Kidneys is Fibrous capsule.
52-Kidney interstitium is related to Aldosterone for more concentration.
53-Hepatic Vein has maximum amount of Urea.
54-Antibodies are transferred from mother to both foetus and Neonate.
55-Interferon are the antibiotics produced against viral attack.
56-Maturation of sperms take place in Epididymus.
57-Thickest layer of female reproductive tract is Myometrium.
58-First polar body is present alongwith secondry oocyte.
59-Thickest endometrium is present just before Menstruation.
60-Bulbouretheral gland performes the function of neutralization of urine and lubrication. 7
61-Testosterone is secreted in human male before birth.
62-Ovulation relates to the release of secondary oocyte.
63-Olecranium process is the process involved in locking Ulna and Elbow joint.
64-Smooth muscles first time appeared in Phylum Platyhelmenthes.
65-Digestion is not controlled by Cerebrum.
66-Medulla connects brain with spinal cord.
67-Adrenaline and nor-adrenaline are synergistic.
68-Veinous blood contains hormones.
69-Posterior lobe of Pituitary secretes ADH,secretes Oxytocin but doesnot synthesize any hormone.
70-Adrenaline dilates the pupil and ATROPINE also has the same function.
71-Sense organs like ears,eyes and nose are controlled directly by forebrain.
72-Neuroglial cells are actually SCHWANN cells .
73-T-1 referes to producers,T-2 referes to primary consumers,T-3 refers to secondary consumers and T-4 refers to tertiary consumers.
74-Mycorhiza is an association between plant growing in Acidic soil.
75-Leaves are eaten by caterpillars and caterpillars are eaten by black birds.
76-Grasses are resistant to grazing due to underground stem.
77-Pesticide kills both insects and weeds. 8
78-Stability in system is related to Food Web,more complex the web,the more is stability of the system.
79-Symbiosis most correctly refers to living together of two organisms.
80-Herbivores are reffered to as Primary Consumers and hence possess maximum amount of energy.
81-A car parked in sunlight and its temperature is higher than outside.It is an example of Green house effect phenomenon.
82-10% energy flows from one level to another rof the total amount of energy.
83-Relation between T2 and T1 is GRAZING.
84-relation between T2 and T3 is called Predation.
85-Green house gases are CO2 and CFCs.
86-Food web is benefical with more number of chains in it.
87-Parasitism,Commensalism and Mutualism can be present between the same species.
88-Retrovirus is used for Gene Therapy.
89-20 RNA nucleotides in the primer of PCR.
90-Male and female has more number of genes and more number of alleles respectively.
91-Autosomal disease include colourblindness and haemophilia.
92-Bombay disease refers to lack of an attacement factor.
93-50% RBC make composition of blood.
94-Community is a biotic factor of the ecosystem. 9
95-Golgi apparatus is absent in Blue green algae which is a prokaryote.
96-Asperigillus is an example of Brown mold.
97-Atropine and Adrenaline are synergistic.
98-Enterobius Vermicularis is present in Large intestine.
99-Primase plays the role of first logical step in the process of DNA replication.
100-During replication nucleotides used are triphosphates.
101-Golgi vesicles forming golgi apparatus probably bud off from Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
102-Hollow peristaltic contractions are called Hungerpangs.
103-Glycerol is absorbed in VILLI.
104-Carbonic acid is formed redblood cells.
105-Semilunar valves are present in heart,blood vessels and lymph vessels.
106-Granulocytes are polymorphonuclear in nature.
107-Lithotripsy removes all types of stones present in gall bladder,urinar bladder and Kidney.
108-Eosinophil and Basophil are antagonistic to each other.
109-Fibrinogen,Thrombocytes and Basophills all are involved in clotting of blood directly or indirectly.
110-Basophills release Heparin.
111-Urine is formed in Distal convoluted tubule. 10
112-CO is neutral in nature.
113-Single molecule of Haemoglobin has 4 iron groups in it.
114-Hip and shoulder joint are synovial joints.
115-Hormones are always released in Veinous blood.
116-Unmarried lady has more number of degenerated Corpus Luteum .
117-Ligaments differ from tendons in having Elastin.
118-Fermentation occurs in cytosole and Mitochondria.
119-Plasmid gene transfer are used for bacteria only.
120-DNA ligase not required for PCR.
121-Antigen of donor reacts with antibody of reciepient.
122-Hydrogen bonds are more sensitive as compared to other bonds
123-Chlorophyll a is common in antenna complex and reaction centre of photosynthesis.
124-Evolution operates upon population.
125-Product of evolution is the origion of a new species.
126-Pilli are made up of PILLIN protein.
127-Wheat grain is seed as well as fruit.
128-Structural unit Reflex action is Neuron.
129-Nerve Tracts are part of Central Nervous Ssystem.
130-Secretion of Histamine by Basophills is sometimes related with use of Penicillin. 11
131-Carotid Labyrinth is a swallowing at the base of carotid artery and its function is to maintain the pressure of blood.
132-Most common form of glucose is in Ring form.
133-In prokaryotes the transcription takes place in nucleoid.
134-Leaves of Bamboo are used to cure the Horses.
135-Antibodies are present in blood lymph and interstitial fluid.
136-Retrovirus are not used in genetic engineering in bacteria.
137-Aristotle first discussed evolution
#Regards:Khalid Ismail
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